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"Labor arbitrage" is one of those phrases that is used so much we stop thinking about what it means. By definition, arbitrage is "riskless profit as zero cost"; however, in outsourced software development, it is anything but.   

The use of the expression “labor arbitrage” to describe outsourcing in general, and outsourcing of software development in particular, has always seemed extremely misleading to me.

The term “arbitrage” refers to the practice of taking advantage of a price difference between two or more markets: striking a combination of matching deals that capitalize upon the imbalance, the profit being the difference between the market prices. In other words, arbitrage means the possibility of riskless profit at zero cost.

Well, if you take a closer look at how outsourced software development works in the real world, none of the components of this last statement apply.

First, let’s take a look at the profit part. True, companies typically try to leverage the difference in the costs of IT labor between various geographies, and in some cases this results in reduced costs. However, it is no secret that many, if not most, companies fail to realize expected cost savings from outsourced software development, if there have been any savings at all. Besides, the drivers for engaging in outsourcing vary from company to company: sometimes clients simply can’t ramp up their teams quickly enough, or can’t find particular skill sets, without going to an outsourcing partner. In other words, the “profit” (cost savings) from using software outsourcing is far from guaranteed, and, unlike trading, it is not necessarily the main driver behind outsourcing in the first place.

Which brings us to the other part of the statement: risklessness. Unlike commodities, e.g. cane sugar or copper, all IT labor is not created equal. When you are outsourcing software development, you are not simply swapping your local IT talent for remote developers, just as you would swap out a hard drive in your computer. Differences in knowledge, technical skills, productivity, communication, and culture can and do significantly impact outcomes of development projects. Furthermore, for example, if an ISV brings in a provider to help with their product development, and the provider’s remote team fails to deliver outright, or the project runs late and disrupts the client’s product release schedule, the market can punish the company with reduced customer loyalty and revenue shortfalls. In that case, even if the cost savings on development are in fact realized, they are hardly worth it to the client. In short, outsourcing your application development is anything but riskless.

On to the final part of the formula: zero cost. It is obvious that outsourcing generates additional costs on top of the labor wage rates. Companies that set up captive operations in cheaper geographies have to take care of the administrative and management overhead associated with running a separate facility in that particular country, and that’s just the beginning. Even clients who hire outsourcing providers still need to set up a governance infrastructure and assign resources to manage the relationship and guide the vendor’s work in order to ensure desirable outcomes. Experienced buyers understand that providers’ rate cards are not necessarily indicative of the relative cost of doing business with this or that outsourcing firm.

So I suggest that we drop the term “labor arbitrage” from discussions of software development outsourcing, altogether. Strictly speaking, it is not applicable. Software development in general, and outsourced development in particular, is a highly complex endeavor with many factors and variables in play, and reducing the discourse to the terms more suitable to commodity trading doesn’t do us any good.

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David Tedford

Vice President

David Tedford has over 20 years of sales experience within the IT/software industry. He excels at being immersed in a customer's environment, understanding his customers requirements, crafting solutions to meet those requirements, and ultimately providing solutions to his customers.

Vladimir Litoshenko

Senior Vice President

As the head of business development for First Line Software, Vladimir heads up business development in Western Europe and Russia.

Vladimir began his career in IT in 2002, when, as a student of Faculty of Automation of Computer Science of the First Electrotechnical University (ETU “LETI”), he began his work at The Morfizpribor Central Research Institute (CRI). Vladimir joined the StarSoft team (predecessor of First Line Software) in 2004 as a Junior Software Developer. As he gained experience with more and more projects, he was promoted to leadership roles.

Richard Leslie

UK Business Development

Richard has over 15 years of sales and account management expertise in the IT and Tech sector. He has worked on many outsourcing engagements with global companies.

David Fien


David is a business development professional with more than 20 years’ experience as a specialist in the acquisition of partnerships and IT/software services for associations, not-for profits and corporations in Australia, New Zealand and USA. He has specific expertise in the healthcare, legal and hospitality industries.